GRAPHENE ~ 'STRONGER THAN STEEL'

atomic scale carbon

ATOMIC SCALE CARBON

Graphene is an allotrope of carbon consisting of a single layer of atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice surface

This super galactic material is going to revolutionize the world over the next decade

Be one of the first to join the Graphene Revolution!

Honeycomb  'graphene' pattern in nature ~ by bees

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BUFOLLO GRAPHENE

Bufollo are Europe's leading distributor of Graphene infused products

graphene - the substance

GRAPHENE  ~
THE SUBSTANCE

Discovered by accident in 2004 and after taking some time to develop graphene into an affordable and usable product, the time is now

This will change the world!

We are here to give you the 'magic products'

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GRAPHENE FACTS

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Graphene is a very strong material and has high mechanical strength ~ 100 times that of steel

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Graphene is the best material for thermal conductivity in the world ~  5300W/m.k

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Graphene is the lowest resistivity material in the world ~ lower than silver/copper

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Graphene is able to cope with extreme current loads ~ 1 million times higher than copper

Graphene

graphene

Graphene was properly isolated and characterized in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester. They pulled graphene layers from graphite with a common adhesive tape in a process called either micromechanical cleavage or the Scotch tape technique. The graphene flakes were then transferred onto thin silicon dioxide (silica) layer on a silicon plate ("wafer"). The silica electrically isolated the graphene and weakly interacted with it, providing nearly charge-neutral graphene layers. The silicon beneath the could be used as a "back gate" electrode to vary the charge density in the graphene over a wide range.

This work resulted in the two winning the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene." Their publication, and the surprisingly easy preparation method that they described, sparked a "graphene gold rush". Research expanded and split off into many different subfields, exploring different exceptional properties of the material—quantum mechanical, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, magnetic, etc.

Three of the four outer-shell electrons of each atom in a graphene sheet occupy three sp2 hybrid orbitals – a combination of orbitals s, px and py — that are shared with the three nearest atoms, forming σ-bonds. The length of these bonds is about 0.142 nanometers.

The remaining outer-shell electron occupies a pz orbital that is oriented perpendicularly to the plane. These orbitals hybridize together to form two half-filled bands of free-moving electrons, π and π∗, which are responsible for most of graphene's notable electronic properties.[52] Recent quantitative estimates of aromatic stabilization and limiting size derived from the enthalpies of hydrogenation agree well with the literature reports.[54]

The hexagonal lattice structure of isolated, single-layer graphene can be directly seen with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of sheets of graphene suspended between bars of a metallic grid. Some of these images showed a "rippling" of the flat sheet, with amplitude of about one nanometer. These ripples may be intrinsic to the material as a result of the instability of two-dimensional crystals, or may originate from the ubiquitous dirt seen in all TEM images of graphene. Photoresist residue, which must be removed to obtain atomic-resolution images, may be the "adsorbates" observed in TEM images, and may explain the observed rippling.

single-layer graphene

Graphene is a zero-gap semiconductor, because its conduction and valence bands meet at the Dirac points. The Dirac points are six locations in momentum space, on the edge of the Brillouin zone, divided into two non-equivalent sets of three points. The two sets are labeled K and K'. The sets give graphene a valley degeneracy of gv = 2. By contrast, for traditional semiconductors the primary point of interest is generally Γ, where momentum is zero.[52] Four electronic properties separate it from other condensed matter systems.

Graphene displays remarkable electron mobility at room temperature, with reported values in excess of 15000 cm2⋅V−1⋅s−1.[2] Hole and electron mobilities are nearly the same. The mobility is independent of temperature between 10 K and 100 K, and shows little change even at room temperature (300 K), which implies that the dominant scattering mechanism is defect scattering. Scattering by graphene's acoustic phonons intrinsically limits room temperature mobility in freestanding graphene to 200000 cm2⋅V−1⋅s−1 at a carrier density of 1012 cm−2.

The corresponding resistivity of graphene sheets would be 10−6 Ω⋅cm. This is less than the resistivity of silver, the lowest otherwise known at room temperature. However, on SiO2 substrates, scattering of electrons by optical phonons of the substrate is a larger effect than scattering by graphene's own phonons. This limits mobility to 40000 cm2⋅V−1⋅s−1.

Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity

Thermal transport in graphene is an active area of research, which has attracted attention because of the potential for thermal management applications. Following predictions for graphene and related carbon nanotubes, early measurements of the thermal conductivity of suspended graphene reported an exceptionally large thermal conductivity up to 5300 W⋅m−1⋅K−1, compared with the thermal conductivity of pyrolytic graphite of approximately 2000 W⋅m−1⋅K−1 at room temperature. However, later studies primarily on more scalable but more defected graphene derived by Chemical Vapor Deposition have been unable to reproduce such high thermal conductivity measurements, producing a wide range of thermal conductivities between 1500 – 2500 W⋅m−1⋅K−1 for suspended single layer graphene .

The large range in the reported thermal conductivity can be caused by large measurement uncertainties as well as variations in the graphene quality and processing conditions. In addition, it is known that when single-layer graphene is supported on an amorphous material, the thermal conductivity is reduced to about 500 – 600 W⋅m−1⋅K−1 at room temperature as a result of scattering of graphene lattice waves by the substrate, and can be even lower for few layer graphene encased in amorphous oxide. Likewise, polymeric residue can contribute to a similar decrease in the thermal conductivity of suspended graphene to approximately 500 – 600 W⋅m−1⋅K−1 for bilayer graphene.

Later in 2014, the Rice team announced that graphene showed a greater ability to distribute force from an impact than any known material, ten times that of steel per unit weight. The force was transmitted at 22.2 kilometres per second (13.8 mi/s)

Later in 2014, the Rice team announced that graphene showed a greater ability to distribute force from an impact than any known material, ten times that of steel per unit weight. The force was transmitted at 22.2 kilometres per second (13.8 mi/s)

3D graphene

In 2013, a three-dimensional honeycomb of hexagonally arranged carbon was termed 3D graphene, and self-supporting 3D graphene was also produced. 3D structures of graphene can be fabricated by using either CVD or solution based methods. A 2016 review by Khurram and Xu et al. provided a summary of then-state-of-the-art techniques for fabrication of the 3D structure of graphene and other related two-dimensional materials. In 2013, researchers at Stony Brook University reported a novel radical-initiated crosslinking method to fabricate porous 3D free-standing architectures of graphene and carbon nanotubes using nanomaterials as building blocks without any polymer matrix as support. These 3D graphene (all-carbon) scaffolds/foams have applications in several fields such as energy storage, filtration, thermal management and biomedical devices and implants.

3D graphene

Box-shaped graphene (BSG) nanostructure appearing after mechanical cleavage of pyrolytic graphite was reported in 2016. The discovered nanostructure is a multilayer system of parallel hollow nanochannels located along the surface and having quadrangular cross-section. The thickness of the channel walls is approximately equal to 1 nm. Potential fields of BSG application include: ultra-sensitive detectors, high-performance catalytic cells, nanochannels for DNA sequencing and manipulation, high-performance heat sinking surfaces, rechargeable batteries of enhanced performance, nanomechanical resonators, electron multiplication channels in emission nanoelectronic devices, high-capacity sorbents for safe hydrogen storage.

Production

A rapidly increasing list of production techniques have been developed to enable graphene's use in commercial applications.

Isolated 2D crystals cannot be grown via chemical synthesis beyond small sizes even in principle, because the rapid growth of phonon density with increasing lateral size forces 2D crystallites to bend into the third dimension. In all cases, graphene must bond to a substrate to retain its two-dimensional shape.

Small graphene structures, such as graphene quantum dots and nanoribbons, can be produced by "bottom up" methods that assemble the lattice from organic molecule monomers (e. g. citric acid, glucose). "Top down" methods, on the other hand, cut bulk graphite and graphene materials with strong chemicals (e. g. mixed acids).

As of 2014, exfoliation produced graphene with the lowest number of defects and highest electron mobility.

Graphene is a transparent and flexible conductor that holds great promise for various material/device applications, including solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LED), touch panels, and smart windows or phones. Smartphone products with graphene touch screens are already on the market.

In 2013, Head announced their new range of graphene tennis racquets.

university

As of 2015, there is one product available for commercial use: a graphene-infused printer powder. Many other uses for graphene have been proposed or are under development, in areas including electronics, biological engineering, filtration, lightweight/strong composite materials, photovoltaics and energy storage. Graphene is often produced as a powder and as a dispersion in a polymer matrix. This dispersion is supposedly suitable for advanced composites, paints and coatings, lubricants, oils and functional fluids, capacitors and batteries, thermal management applications, display materials and packaging, solar cells, inks and 3D-printers' materials, and barriers and films.

In January 2018, graphene based spiral inductors exploiting kinetic inductance at room temperature were first demonstrated at the University of California, Santa Barbara, led by Kaustav Banerjee. These inductors were predicted to allow significant miniaturization in radio-frequency integrated circuit applications

Graphene manufacturing is also getting cheaper. In 2015, scientists at the University of Glasgow (pictured above) found a way to produce graphene at a cost that is 100 times less than the previous methods. There are methods of extraction available now by reprocessing rubber tyres and extracting the carbon from the recycled tyres.

In 2016, researchers have been able to make a graphene film that can absorb 95% of light incident on it.

On August 2, 2016, BAC's new Mono model is said to be made out of graphene as a first of both a street-legal track car and a production car.

Graphene manufacturing

Far-infrared physiotherapy ~ Negative oxygen ions

The graphene electrothermal film radiates heat in the form of thermal radiation and the radiation wave generated is in the range of 8~14. This band is known as the "light of life" in medicine, is recognised as promoting the circulation of human blood, effectively delays the formation of fine lines in the face, promotes metabolism and has anti-aging effects. In addition, when the product radiates heat energy, it will also produce negative air separation, which can improve air quality, improve human immunity, and also have the effect of removing smoke, formaldehyde and other toxins.

Our graphene electrothermal film products have been tested and certified by  professional testing institutions and the thermal radiation conversion efficiency is 87%, far exceeding the industry standard of 60%. At the same time, it also passed the safety test of the electrothermal film and the heating film of 150W and below can reach 100% coverage without any safety hazard.

Energy saving "frequency conversion" ~ Self-limiting temperature (PTC)

Our graphene electrothermal film product itself has temperature limit capabilities and when heating temperature reaches the ideal temperature, the graphene radiator will automatically adjust the power in energy saving mode, to save electricity and save energy. Our graphene film uses up to 30% to 50% less energy than ordinary electrothermal film.

Durability

Our graphene electrothermal film has been tested at the national far infrared detection center and has been tested with 210,000 hours of un attenuated use.

Energy saving "frequency conversion" ~ Self-limiting temperature (PTC)

Function & Features

  1. Each carbon wire passing through the current is less than 10mA (below all safefty recommendations)
  2. Far infrared health care function
  3. Up to more than 98% of the electricity conversion efficiency
  4. With left and right convergence, the current and voltage performance is more stable
  5. "First" self demagnetizing function integrated heating film
  6. Super P.T.C characteristics, first-class frequency conversion technology, power change with temperature
  7. A new generation of carbon separation technology, to eliminate the phenomenon of spark

Applications

Apply to: wood floor heating, cement pavement heating, steam system, ground snow melting system, farming heating, far infrared physiotherapy, product processing, all kinds of heating and insulation systems

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BUFOLLO GRAPHENE - INFINITE QUALITY

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